Other common manufactured polymers have backbones that include elements other than carbon. The movement of individual macromolecules occurs by a process called reptation in which each chain molecule is constrained by entanglements with neighboring chains to move within a virtual tube.
Listen to student responses. Linking countless strips of construction paper together to make paper garlands or hooking together hundreds of paper clips to form chains, or stringing beads helps visualize polymers.
Removal of the spinnerette from the wet spinning coagulation bath is the innovation known as dry-jet wet spinning.
Morphology Polymer morphology generally describes the arrangement and microscale ordering of polymer chains in space. The trivial name is assigned based on historical precedent or popular usage rather than a standardized naming convention.
This tends to increase the free energy of mixing for polymer solutions and thereby making solvation less favorable, and thereby making the availability of concentrated solutions of polymers far rarer than those of small molecules. New catalysts offer the opportunity to make new materials with useful properties, and the design of new specialty polymers with high-value-added applications is an area of rapidly increasing emphasis.
Lignin consists of a complicated three-dimensional network of polymers. All materials fields would benefit from closer relationships and better communication.
Compounding polymers with additives to give a controlled range of properties is an essential step in the production of almost all the polymers used today. Swinburne commercialised his resin as a range of varnishes but Baekeland mixed the resin with significant amounts of woodflour to produce the first polymer composite — Bakelite.