Generally speaking, the Muslims of this period evinced no knowledge of that great principle of movement in the social structure of Islam, technically called ijtihad. These exactions fixed during Sulaiman's own time became arbitrary and exorbitant later in the hands of his successors, so much so that the office of tax-collector went to the highest bidder.
Thus the simple folks were saddled with an authority more terrible and tyrannous in nature than that of the traditions of a degenerate society.
The rulers were weakened by internecine wars and were often compelled to contract disadvantageous pacts of military and commercial nature to obtain the latest military weapons from the Dutch and secure their support and blessings in their own designs.
The causes of the decline of the Mughul Empire were many. To the Safawids belongs the credit of making Persia a nation once again. The Muslims lost their empires; the Muslim society went to pieces; science and philosophy disappeared.
Text message A text message widely circulated in an Arab country claimed that trucks carrying a million melons had been smuggled across the country's northern border and the melons were contaminated with the HIV virus, which causes Aids.
From London to Lesvos and Birmingham to Baghdad, men have conditioning which worsens their problems, especially when it comes to depression.The occurrence of an epidemic, poverty, flood, or drought presents a challenge to a scientist's ingenuity and technological skill. The Portuguese exploited the internal differences and the mutual jealousies of the native rulers. In his book What Went Wrong? Because Islam was born outside of the Roman Empire, it was never subordinate to politics. In nearly all Muslim countries there arose a long line of hereditary pirs who claimed direct and immediate contact with eternal verities and professed to ensure the spiritual uplift of their votaries provided they had unshakable faith in them. If it be so, one cannot but wonder at the decline and degradation of the Muslims. The natives were struck by the superior strategy and war technology of the foreigners and curried favor with them to obtain their expert advice and the latest war instruments. By his orders not only were the inhabitants of Delhi massacred but also the entire wealth of the Mughuls was taken away. But the baneful effect of the degenerate type of mysticism was not confined simply to the indictment of intellectual inquiry. The question then is, why did Turkey suffer so miserably that her condition was declared to be incurable, not only by her foes but also by her friends? This tendency was encouraged amongst the Muslims by their appalling ignorance of science and the cheap methods of faith-healing placed at their disposal by the clever pirs and the so-called Sufis. To strengthen their positions, the offices which they held were made hereditary, and they were allowed to retain a certain percentage of the crop collected from the natives. And yet intellectual progress and cultural openness were once encouraged among many Arabic societies.
To be sure, the vast empire was theologically and ethnically diverse; but the removal of political barriers that previously divided the region meant that scholars from different religious and ethnic backgrounds could travel and interact with each other.
That, in turn, is attributable to its failure to reconcile faith and reason. Whatever modern science owes to Arabic science, the intellectual activity of the medieval Islamic world was not of the same kind as the European scientific revolution, which came after a radical break from ancient natural philosophy.
On the whole, the Christian missionary program met a grand failure in Malacca and elsewhere, for nowhere could Christianity supplant Islam.