Describe the stages of freud s theory and explain characteristics of personality
Psychosexual stages of development
Therefore, the satisfactory parental handling and resolution of the Oedipus complex and of the Electra complex are most important in developing the infantile super-ego, because, by identifying with a parent, the child internalizes morality , thereby, choosing to comply with societal rules, rather than having to reflexively comply in fear of punishment. Oral Stage Birth to 1 year In the first stage of personality development, the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. In the phallic stage, a boy's decisive psychosexual experience is the Oedipus complex , his son—father competition for possession of mother. These are the sorts of questions that have long held the fascination of psychologists and which have inspired a number of different theories of personality. He called them the id, ego, and superego. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals. Key Terms pathology: Any deviation from a healthy or normal condition; abnormality. Freud offered the Little Hans case study as evidence of the Oedipus complex. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.
Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, and results in conflict between the id demanding immediate gratification and the ego demanding delayed gratification in eliminating bodily wastes, and handling related activities e.
For example, while your personality might lead you to be shy in social situations, an emergency might lead you to take on a more outspoken and take-charge approach.
While a few aspects of personality may change as we grow older, personality also tends to remain fairly consistent throughout life.
This Oedipal is the generic i.
These people also get overly dependent on others. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world i.
Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personalitya person too concerned with neatness and order. Contemporary cultural considerations have questioned the normative presumptions of the Freudian psychodynamic perspective that posits the son—father conflict of the Oedipal complex as universal and essential to human psychologic development.
Psychosexual stages definition
It is evidenced if a person is preoccupied with oral activities. Oedipus Complex The most important aspect of the phallic stage is the Oedipus complex. In a famous letter to a mother who had written him to ask that he treat her homosexual son, Freud wrote that while he believed homosexuality was not advantageous, it was certainly not a vice or something to be ashamed of. This could be expressed in making corny jokes. In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that they do not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. It is during these stages of development that the experiences are filtered through the three levels of the human mind. Freud wrote, " Personality is organized and consistent. Simon, W. Genetic Psychology Monographs. For Freud, the proper outlet of the sexual instinct in adults was through heterosexual intercourse. Latency 5 — 12 years of age : The development of healthy dormant sexual feelings for the opposite sex. While this may mean you have to wait 10 more minutes, which would frustrate your id, your ego decides to make that sacrifice as part of the compromise— satisfying your desire for ice cream while also avoiding an unpleasant social situation and potential feelings of shame.
This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Oedipuswho unwittingly killed his father, Laiusand sexually possessed his mother, Jocasta. Main article: Phallic stage The third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stagespanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the child's genitalia are his or her primary erogenous zone.
These elements work together to create complex human behaviours. Main article: Oral stage Oral needs may satisfied by thumb-sucking The first stage of psychosexual development is the oral stagespanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, and from the oral exploration of his or her environment, i.
This is resolved through the process of identification, which involves the child adopting the characteristics of the same sex parent. Main article: Latency stage The fourth stage of psychosexual development is the latency stage that spans from the age of six years until puberty , wherein the child consolidates the character habits they developed in the three, earlier stages of psychologic and sexual development. Upon discovering this, he pokes his eyes out and becomes blind. The libido is dormant. Behavioral theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. In particular, there are those whose lives are lived on a totally narcissistic level. Speech errors such as this are quite common. It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our 20's. Although this could have far-reaching consequences, there are various mechanisms that could either function as protective factors or be negative consequences of disrupted development. In the young boy, the Oedipus complex or more correctly, conflict, arises because the boy develops sexual pleasurable desires for his mother.
Freud's theory is good at explaining but not at predicting behavior which is one of the goals of science.
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