A dissertation tesis doctoralwith an average of pages, is the main requisite along with typically one previously published journal article. In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees.
A grade may be awarded, though in many countries PhDs are not graded at all, and in others, only one of the theoretically possible grades the highest is ever used in practice. Des, MTech, M. All the dissertation referees must already have achieved at least the academic degree that the candidate is trying to reach.
The length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study[ citation needed ] Slovenia[ edit ] At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies.
Indonesia[ edit ] In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses. The undergraduate theses are called uppsats, sometimes examensarbete, especially at technical programmes. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree.
PhD by publication is becoming increasingly common in many fields of study[ citation needed ]. The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a research project to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis.